INSTRUMENTOS DE EVALUACIÓN FISIOTERAPÉUTICA EN POBLACIÓN ADULTA Y PEDIÁTRICA UTILIZADAS EN LA PRÁCTICA CLÍNICA

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Jose Ivan Alfonso Mantilla

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Introducción  La fisioterapia como área de estudio del movimiento corporal humano, se ha enfatizado en ofrecer herramientas de recuperación a pacientes con diversos tipos de patología a nivel osteomuscular, cardiovascular y neuromuscular. Los procesos de evaluación en fisioterapia son importantes para la identificación de alteraciones estructurales y funcionales en el movimiento corporal humano, en la actualidad existen diversos instrumentos de evaluación con altos niveles de confiabilidad que permiten identificar alteraciones funcionales en los pacientes. Objetivo realizar una revisión de la literatura sobre pruebas clínicas utilizadas para la evaluación del movimiento corporal humano en población adulta y pediátrica en la práctica clínica categorizada por las categorías de la APTA. Método revisión sistemática de la literatura donde se tuvieron en cuenta estudios contemplados del año 2000 al 2016, literatura que contemplara los siguientes términos DeCS: Evaluation, Physical Therapy, pediatrics, adult. Resultados se pudo identificar que entre población adulta y pediátrica existen diferencias en las escalas de medición utilizadas para la evaluación del movimiento corporal humano, las escalas pueden ser categorizadas a través de las categorías de la APTA como características antropométricas, capacidad aeróbica y resistencia, integridad integumentaria, dolor, conciencia atención y cognición, integridad refleja, función motora, desarrollo neuromotor e integridad sensorial, rango de movimiento y flexibilidad, desempeño muscular, marcha y locomoción, balance, autocuidado y manejo en el hogar. Conclusión se pudieron identificar pruebas clínicas con altos niveles de validez y confiabilidad que permiten determinar alteraciones del movimiento corporal humano en adultos y niños, estas pruebas pueden ser categorizadas a través de las categorías de la APTA.

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